Ishe tvorje tva


Ramaswamy Sastry


श्री गणेशाय नमः

श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः

हरिः

 

A brahmin as a householder is enjoined to perform various religious duties in his life. The most important of these are yajnas. For this, he maintains two unextinguished Agnis at his home. The first is called Smartagni or Ekagni ( Single Agni ). All duties prescribed by the smritis are performed in this Smartangni. One acquires eligibilty for these rites at the time of marriage. This Agni is also called Aupasanagni which is generated for the first time at the time of marriage and maintained through out the life unextinguished. The morning and evening aupasana homa is performed in this Agni. The other rites performed with Aupasanagni are – Vaishvadeva, Parvana, Ashtaka, Masi Sraadha, Sarpa Bali and Ishana Bali. These seven are collectively called Paka Yajnas.

 

The second Agni called Shrautagni of Tretagni ( Three fold Agni – Garhapatya, Ahavaniya and Dakshinagni ) is generated through a procedure called Agnyadheyam at a prescribed time. All the rites prescribed in the Vedic corpus of Shrutis are performed in this Agni. They consist primarily of seven haviry‌ajnas and seven Somayajnas with some minor variations depending on the ShrautaSutra followed.

 

Out of these the morning and evening homa is called Agnihotra. The other haviryajnas are – Darsapurnamaseshti, Agrayana, PindaPitruyajna, Chaturmasyani, NirudhaPasubandha and Sautramani. The Soma yajnas are – Agnishtoma, Atyagnishtoma, Ukthya, Shodashi, Vajapeya, Atiratra and Aptoryama.

The first Prasna of the first Kanda of the Taittiriya Samhita of Krishna Yajurveda deals with the mantras and procedures involved in the performance of Darsapurnamaseshti. These are two yajnas – one performed every amavasya and one performed every purnima.

इ॒षे त्वो॒र्जे त्वा॑ वा॒यवः॑ स्थोपा॒यव॑स्थ

इ॒षे त्वा॒ ऊ॒र्जे त्वा॒ वा॒यवः॑ स्थ॒ उ॒पा॒यव॒  इत्यु॑पआ॒यवः॑ स्थ॒

भट्टभास्कर भाष्यम् - तत्रामावास्यायां शाखामाच्छिनत्त्यध्वर्युः – ‘ इषे त्वोर्जे त्वाइति उभा वामिन्द्राग्नी ’ ( तै.सं ...१४ ) इत्यतः प्राक् इतः प्रभृति ये मन्त्रास्तेषां प्रजापतिः  काण्डर्षिः अत्र केचित् युष्मच्छब्दावृत्या द्वे यजुषी आहुः तदानीं छेदने द्वयोः समुच्चयः   अपरे तु द्वितीयेन संनमनादि कुर्वन्ति

इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा  is employed for cutting a branch of palasha tree to drive the calves away before milking of the cows. There are two opinions here – 1. इषे त्वा ‌and ऊर्जे त्वा are used together while cutting the branch. 2. इषे त्वा is used for cutting and ऊर्जे त्वा for strightening and cleaning the cut branch of dust etc.

सायणभाष्यम् - इषे त्वेति दर्शयागं चिकीर्षुरमावास्यायां प्रातर्नित्याग्निहोत्रं हुत्वा ततो दर्शयागार्थंममाग्ने वर्चः ’ ( तै.सं. ..१४ ) इत्यादिभिर्मन्त्रैर्वह्निषु समिदाधानरूपमन्वाधानं कृत्वा वत्सापकरणार्थं मन्त्रेण पलाशशाखां छिन्द्यात् तदाह बौधायनः – ‘ तामाच्छिनत्तीषे त्वोर्जे त्वा ’ ( बौ.श्रौ.. ) आपस्तम्बस्तु तदेतदभिधाय मन्त्रभेदपक्षमपि कंचिदाश्रित्य विनियोगभेदमाह  - ‘ इषे त्वोर्जेत्वेति तामाच्छिनत्ति अपि वा इषे त्वेत्याच्छिनत्त्यूर्जे त्वेति संनमयत्यनुमार्ष्टि वा ’ ( आप.श्रौ...१०-११ ) इति ।। संनमनमृजूकरणम् अनुमार्जनमानुलोम्येन संलग्नधूल्याद्यनयनम् सोऽयं मन्त्रभेदपक्षो जैमिनिना द्वितीयाध्यायप्रथमपादे  ( मी.सू...४७ ) स्वीकृतः

One desirous of performing Darsha yaga, after concluding his morning Agnihotra on the amavasya day, offers samidha in Agni employing mantras starting from ममाग्ने वर्चः ’ ( तै.सं. ..१४ ). This is called anvadhanam and is the formal beginning of vow for the Darsha yaga to be performed on the next day. The cows are sent away for grazing so that they are rich in milk for the yaga to be performed on the next. The Adhwaryu then goes to bring branches of palasha tree with which the calves are to be driven away for grazing. This driving away of the calves at the time of milking of the cows is called वत्सापाकरणम् .


What is वत्सापाकरणम् ?

किमिदं वत्सापाकरणं नाम ? कथं वा तस्य प्राथम्यमिति चेत् । उच्यते सन्ति दर्शयागे त्रीणि प्रधानानि हवींषि ,पूर्णमासयागे च त्रीणि । आग्नेयोऽष्टाकपालः,ऐन्द्रं दधि, ऐन्द्रं पय इति त्रीणि दर्शे । आग्नेयोऽष्टाकपालः ,आज्येन प्राजापत्य उपांशुयाजः,अग्निषोमीय एकादशकपाल इति पौर्णमासे ।

There are three main offerings in Darsha yaga – eight pots of purodasha meant for Agni, curd for Indra and milk for Indra.

The main offerings in Purnamasa are – eight pots for Agni, ghee for Prajapati and eleven pots for Agneeshoma.

तत्र प्रतिपद्दिने दधि होतुं दधि संपादनीयं,तदर्थम् अमावास्यायां रात्रौ गावो दोग्धव्याः ।

Darsha yaga is performed on the pratipada of shukla paksha. To offer oblation of curd to Indra, it should be prepared and for this purpose the cows are milked in the night of amavasya.

तद्दोहार्थं प्रातः काले लौकिकदोहादूर्ध्वं स्वमातृभिः सह चरन्तो वत्सा मतृभ्योऽपाकरणीयाः तदिदं वत्सापाकरणं यथोक्तरीत्या तस्य प्राथम्यं च ।

If the calves are allowed to roam around with their mothers during the day, they would drink away the entire milk leaving nothing for the evening. Hence, after the regular milking in the morning, the calves should be separated from their mothers. This ceremonial driving away of the calves is called वत्सापाकरणम् ।

तच्च वत्सापकरणं सद्यच्छिन्नया पलाशशाखया कर्तव्यमिति तच्छेदनार्थोऽयम् इषे त्वाइति मन्त्र आदौ समाम्नायते ।

This driving away of the calves should be performed with a freshly cut branch of palasha tree.



Boudhayana is of the opinion that the branch is cut with the utterance of इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा while Apastamba gives two opinions here – 1. the branch is cut with the utterance of इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा 2. इषे त्वा is used for cutting and ऊर्जे त्वा for strightening and cleaning the cut branch of dust etc. Jaimini has approved the second opinion.

 

तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मणम् ३..

इमां प्राचीमुदीचीम् इषमूर्जमभि सँस्कृताम्

बहुपर्णामशुष्काग्राम् हरामि पशुपामहम्

The branch should be growing either towards the east or north. It should be sanctified with the mantra - इषे त्वोर्जेत्वा .The branch should be enriched by the properties indicated by the mantra. The branch should have many leaves and its tip should not be dry. It should not hurt the calves in any way.

तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मणम् ३..

यत्पर्णशाखया वत्सानपाकरोति ब्रह्मणैवैनानपाकरोति

Sayana says –

यथा जगन्निष्पादकं ब्रह्म प्रशस्तं तथा यागनिष्पादकस्य पलाशस्य प्रशस्तत्वात् ब्रह्मत्वेन स्तुतिः

Brahma’s fame is assciated with creation of the Universe. Due to association of Palasha with yajna, it is accorded the status of Brahma.

वैशब्देनअर्थवादान्तरोपपादिता पलाशस्य ब्रह्मसंबन्धप्रसिद्धिः सूच्यते देवेषु परस्परं ब्रह्मतत्त्वं निरूपयत्सु पलाशवृक्षस्तत्त्वमशृणोदित्येतादृशो ब्रह्मसंबन्धः

There is another reason for associating Palasha with Brahma. While Devas were discussing brahma tatva under the shade of Palasha tree it was overheard by Palasha. Thereafter, Palasha got the name सुश्रवाः . The yajamana who offers ahutis with ladle made of Palasha will only hear auspicious words in his life, never insults of accusations.

औपानुवाक्यकाण्डे जुह्वाः पर्णमयीत्वविधिशेषेऽर्थवादे श्रूयते – “ देवा वै ब्रह्मन्नवदन्त तत्पर्णं उपाशृणोत् सुश्रवा वै नाम यस्य पर्णमयी जुहूर्भवति पापँ श्लोकँ शृणोति  ( तै.सं... )

When the branch of palasha tree is used to drive away the calves, it is as if they are being driven away by Brahma only.

यं कामयेतापशुः स्यादिति । अपर्णां तस्मै शुष्काग्रामाहरेत् । अपशुरेव भवति । यं कामयेत पशुमान्त्स्यादिति । बहुपर्णां तस्मै बहुशाखामाहरेत् । पशुमन्तमेवैनं करोति । यत्प्राचीमाहरेत् । देवलोकमभिजयेत् । यदुदीचीं मनुष्यलोकम् । प्राचीमुदीचीमाहरति । उभयोर्लोकयोरभिजित्यै । इषे त्वोर्जे त्वेत्याह । इषमेवोर्जं यजमाने दधाति ।

वत्सापकरण इव गोप्रस्थानेऽपि शाखां विनियुङ्क्ते ।

The same branch is also used to drive the cattle away for grazing.

गायत्रो वै पर्णः गायत्राः पशवः तस्मात्त्रीणि त्रीणि पर्णस्य पलाशानि । त्रिपदा गायत्री । यत्पर्णशाखया गाः प्रार्पयति । स्वयैवैना देवतया प्रार्पयति ।



Palasha is Gayatri. The cows are Gayatri. Gayatri meter has got three padas. The leaves of palasha also occur groups of three. When the palasha branch representing Gayatri is used to touch the cows which are also Gayatri embodied, it is like divinity touching divinity. An ordinary stick can not be used for this purpose. If the Adhwaryu ( Yajurvedic priest who is cutting the palasha branch ) wishes that the yajamana should become devoid of his cattle he should bring a palasha branch without leaves on it and which has a dry tip. The cattle of the yajamana will be destroyed. If the Adhwaryu desires that the yajamana should be rich in cattle he should get a brach with leaves on it and the tip of which is not dry. A branch growing towards east will win devaloka, will assure yajamana success in devaloka. A branch growing towards north will win manushyaloka. If both are obtained, then the yajamana will win both devaloka and manushyaloka. When इषे त्वोर्जेत्वा is uttered it gives both isha and urja to the yajamana.

यथोक्तशाखाच्छेदने कं मन्त्रं पठेदित्याशङ्क्योदाहरति – “ इषे त्वोर्जे त्वेत्याह ” ( तै.ब्रा... ) इति । अस्मिन् मन्त्रे विनियोगानुसारेणआच्छिनद्मिइति पदमध्याहृत्य वाक्यं पूरणीयम् । इडित्यन्नम् सर्वैः प्राणिभिरिष्यमाणत्वात् । ऊर्ग् बलहेतू रसः ।ऊर्जं बलप्राणनयोःइति धातुः । ऊर्ज्यते बलं संपाद्यतेऽनया रसरूपयेत्यूर्क । हे पलाशशाखे ,देवान्नरूपदध्यर्थं त्वामाच्छिनद्मि । तस्य देवस्य बलप्रदरसार्थं त्वामाच्छिनद्मीति वाक्यार्थः ।

इड् means food. ऊर्ग means essence that gives energy.

Oh ! branch of Palasha, I am cutting you for the purpose of providing food to Deva in the form of curd. I am cutting you for providing strength to Deva in the form of essence of energy.

Bhatta Bhaskaracharya says –

प्रयोगकाले तु तदर्थस्मृतिमात्रमेव

The meaning is remebered while cutting the branch.

अनधः सादयति । गर्भाणां धृत्या अप्रपादाय । तस्माद्गर्भाः प्रजानामप्रपादुकाः । उपरीव निदधाति । उपरीव हि सुवर्गो लोकः । सुवर्गस्य लोकस्य समष्ट्यै ।

The branch thus brought should not be kept down. It should be kept at an elevated place. This is done for protection and firmness of pregnancies and so that pregnancies don’t fall. If it is kept down there is risk of miscarriage for women in the family. The heaven is above. One desirous of heaven should surely keep this branch above, at an elevated place.

बौधायनश्रौतसूत्रम् ( .१ । १७.५० । २०.-२ । २४.२३ )

अथाऽस्य व्रतोपेतस्य पर्णशाखामाच्छैति प्राङ्वोदङ वा वाचंयमो यत्र वा वेत्स्यन् मन्यते ।

आच्छायन इति ।। स ह स्माऽऽह बौधायनो वाचंयम एव शाखामाच्छेयाद्वाचंयम एवाऽऽहरेत् । एवं बर्हिरिति ।।

The Adhwaryu should observe silence while cutting the branch and bringing it back.

एवं चैव खलु कुर्यादिति शालीकिः । ब्राह्मणेन च यथार्थमन्तर्हसन्नेव संभाषेत नाऽब्राह्मणेति । व्रतोपेतस्य पर्णशाखामाच्छेयादेतत्राऽऽनुपूर्व्यं भवति ।

Another acharya, Shaleeki also agrees that this should be done in silence. Those who are engaed in the performance of yajna should not talk to non brahmins. While talking to brahmins it should be with a pleasaant smile.

अथेमानि त्रीणि पलाशजातानि भवन्ति श्लक्ष्णको लोमशको व्रततिरिति । लोमशकस्येवैषा छेत्तव्या भवति । यावन्मात्रे गौर्निकर्षेत न तत ऊर्ध्वं छिन्द्यात् । अपशव्याऽत ऊर्ध्वँ स्यात् ।

There are three kinds of palasha branches – 1. One with smooth surface. 2. One with hairy surface. 3. One that looks like a creeper. Only one with hairy surface should be used. The branch should be at a height reachable by cows. Not above. Anything that grows above this height is not fit to be used with cows.

सा या प्राची वोदीची वा बहुपर्णा बहुशाखाऽप्रतिशुष्काग्रा भवति तामाच्छिनत्ति इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा इति ।

A branch growing on the eastern or northern side of the tree with many leaves and many sub – branches and a tip which is not dry should be cut and brought.

शाखाया आच्छेदन इति ।  स ह स्माऽऽह बौधायन इषे त्वा इति शाखामाच्छिन्द्यात् ऊर्जे त्वा इत्यनुमृज्याद्वाऽन्वीक्षेत ।

With इषे त्वा  cut the branch. With ऊर्जे त्वा clean it or look at it.

अन्वीक्षेतैवेति शालीकिः ।

Shaleeki says look at the cut branch with ऊर्जे त्वा.

Sayanacharya goes on to explain the importance of Palasha.

तत्र पलाशशाखायाः प्राशस्त्यं ब्राह्मणे समाम्नातम् । तत्पर्णस्य पर्णत्वम् ( तै.ब्रा... ) इति । द्युशब्दस्यकाशे प्रसिद्धत्वात् तत्परित्यागेन स्वर्गलोकविवक्षां दर्शयितिमितः पृथिवीत आरभ्य तृतीयस्यां दिवि सोमलता पूर्वमासीदित्युक्तम् । गायत्र्याः सोमाहरणंकद्रूश्च वै सुपर्णी च ” ( तै.सं...इत्यस्मिन्ननुवाके – “ सोमो वै राजा गन्धर्वेष्वासीत् ” ( .ब्रा..२७ ) इत्यस्मिन् बह्वृचब्राह्मणे च प्रपञ्चितम् ।

Taittiriya Brahmanam 3.2.1 says –

तृतीयस्यामितो दिवि सोम आसीत् । तं गायत्र्याहरत् । तस्य पर्णमच्छिद्यत । तत्पर्णौऽभवत् । तत्पर्णस्य पर्णत्वम् ।

Soma was in heaven earlier. Gayatri brought Soma to earth. The wing of Soma got cut. That became Palasha parna ( leaf ).

कद्रूश्च वै सुपर्णी च ” ( तै.सं... ) –

Kadru and Suparnee were divine mothers and cowives. There was competition between them as to their beauty. Kadru defeated Suparnee and enslved her as per mutual agreement. The meters such as Jagati, Trishtup and Gayatri were the children of Suparni. Kadru told Suparnee that if you get Soma from heaven, I shall release you from slavery. Accordingly, Suparnee asked her children to go to heaven and get Soma.

First Jagati went up. Jagati originally had fourteen letters. Jagati could not get Soma and lost two letters in the heaven in the process. Jagati returned to earth without Soma, losing two letters and with pashu ( animals associated with yajna ) and deeksha ( vow observed during yajna ).

Then, Trishtup went up and failed in getting Soma. Lost two letters and came back with dakshina and tapas.

Then, Gayatri went up taking a female goat for help. Gayatri originally had only four letters. With the help of the goat’s brilliance, Gayatri got Soma to the earth and acquired the four letters lost by Jagati and Trishtup in the heaven. Thereafter, Gayatri got eight letters.

सोमो वै राजा गन्धर्वेष्वासीत्  ( .ब्रा..२७ ) –

Soma lived among Gandharvas. Devas and Rishis wondered how to get Soma back on earth. Soma essential for performance of yajna. Vak ( speech ) said, Gandharvas are fond of women. Sell me to Gandhavas in exchange for Soma. Devas said – how is that possible ? We can not live without you. Vak said – don’t worry, I will come as and when you need me. Vak assumed the form of a big woman and was given away to Gandharvas. Devas got themselves Soma. Representing this event, at the time of ceremonial buying of Soma during yajna a one year old female calf is released and later bought back.

Sayana continues –

तदाहरणाभिघातेन सोमस्य पर्णं भूमौ पतितम् । पक्षिरूपायाः गायत्र्याः पक्षः पतित इति केचित् । पतितस्य पर्णस्य पलाशवृक्षरूपेण आविर्भावात् तस्य वृक्षस्य पर्णनाम संपन्नम्।

During the struggle Soma’s wing fell on earth. Some are of the opinion that it was the wing of Gayatri that fell. The wing sproutes as palasha tree. Hence palasha is called Parna.

न चात्र पर्णस्य कथं वृक्षत्वं संपन्नमिति विस्मेतव्यम्, विधातुरीश्वरस्याचिनत्यशक्तित्वात् । अन्यथा बीजात् वृक्ष इत्यत्रापि क्व बीजं क्व वा वृक्षः इत्यपि विस्मयः केन वार्येत । सर्वत्र पर्णेभ्यो वृक्षः प्रसज्येत इत्ययमतिप्रसङ्गोऽपीश्वरसङ्कल्पाभेवेन परिहर्तव्यः । स च संकल्पः कार्यैकसमधिगम्यः । तस्माद्वेदार्थे कुतर्कैर्न चोदनीयम् ।

How a tree can grow out of a wing ? Because of the power of intent of the almighty. If a tree can grow out of a seed, why not out of a wing ? Then why trees are not sprouting out of every wing that falls on earth ? Because alimighty doesn’t desire so. Such arguments are not be used when dealing with Vedas.

भट्टभास्कर भाष्यम् -

वत्सानपाकरोति – ‘ वायव:स्थइति । वायवो गन्तारः । वातेर्गतिकर्मणःकृवापाजि ” ( उ १ ) इत्युण् प्रत्ययः । उपायवः उपगन्तारः । हे वत्साः मातृसकाशात् गन्तारो भवत । पुनर्दोहकाले उपगन्तारो भवतेति । वायुशब्देनैषामभिधानं वाय्वधिष्ठातृकत्वमेषां प्रदर्शयितुम् । वायुर्वा अन्तरिक्षस्याध्यक्षाः ( तै.ब्रा... ) इति ब्राह्मणम् ।

Oh ! Calves, go away from your mothers. Come back again at the time of milking. The governing deity of calves is Vayu who is the presiding deity of antariksha.

सायणभाष्यम्

वान्ति गच्छन्ति इति वायवः गन्तारः । उप समीपे यजमानगृहे पुनरायन्त्यागच्छन्तीति उपायवः । हे वत्साः तृणभक्षणाय प्रथमं मातृसकाशादपेत्य स्वेच्छयैवारण्ये गन्तारो भवत । सायं पुनर्यजमानगृहे समागन्तारो भवत । अथवा वत्सानां परंपरया वायुदेवताकत्वात् तदभेदविवक्षया वायुरूपत्वं ब्रुवन्नध्वर्युः तद्रक्षार्थं वत्सान् वायुदेवतायै समर्पयति । अनेनैव प्रकारेण मन्त्रस्य पूर्वभागे ब्राह्मणेन व्याख्यायते। - “ वायवः स्थेत्याह । वायुर्वा अन्तरिक्षस्याध्यक्षाः । अन्तरिक्षदेवत्याः खलु वै पशवः । वायव एवैनान् परिददाति । ( तै.ब्रा... ) इति ।

Oh ! Calves, go away to the forest for grazing as much as you wish. Come back in the evening. The calves are traitionally associated with the deity Vayu. By addressing them so, Adhwaryu is entrusting their protection to Vayu.

वायुः स्वप्रचारेणान्तरिक्षमधितिष्ठति । अन्तरिक्षे च विस्रम्भसंचाराय बहुलमवकाशं प्रयच्छन् वत्सान् पालयति ।

Vayu’s roams around in antariksha and he protects the calves as they graze around and enjoy themselves.

प्र वा एनानेतदाकरोति । यदाह । वायवः स्थेति ( तै.ब्रा... ) । अध्वर्युरिमं भागमुच्चारयतीति यदेतेनोच्चारणेन वत्सन् वायुतादात्म्यलक्षणप्रकृष्टाकारवतः करोति ।

By addressing the calves as “ Vayus ”, the Adhvaryu is equating them to the deity Vayu by his nature.

उत्तरभागं व्याचष्टे – “ उपायवः स्थेत्याह यजमानायैव पशूनुपह्वयते इति

They are called back for the sake of the yajamana.


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